Simulation Of Elections

Systems tested: Acceptance, Instant Runoff, Ranked (Borda), Rated, Condorcet, and some variations of those. These procedures and the results are explained in the...

Election Simulation Paper (HTML 36k) (PDF, 44k)


Forms of Rated voting achieve the best results when voters cast honest and accurate votes. Acceptance voting is very simple and produces good results, so may be more practical to implement (and it should be implementied as soon as possible). Condorcet has some good properties but due to complexity it may not go over well with a public that would have trouble understanding it. Instant Runoff produces results only barely better than the current single vote system and has some bad properties which make in undesirable.

Two representative graphs with captions. This is the short-short version of my results.

Many graphs over various numbers of voters and choices and error rates. Includes newly graphed data on reliability and consensus.

I've seen a few contrived voting sets online to illustrate points. Just as a check I ran them.


Use Normalized Ratings, Cordorcet Rankings or Acceptance Votes. All fairly and accurately record the will of the people, considering the votes in whole, and all are resistant to strategic voting, encouraging voters to vote their consciences.


Download (release or nightly) the C++ source code to the simulator. Includes all the voting systems.

See Also Voting Utility source code.

To Do:


Email me.